Panoramic x-ray or panoramic radiograph is a dental examination of the upper and lower jaws. The two-dimensional image is about a half-circle from ear to ear. Panoramic radiography is a form of focal plane tomography. Thus images are taken from several levels to make the panoramic image, where the upper jaw and lower jaw are in the focal range and the surface and deeper bodies of the range are blurred.
equipment consists of a horizontal rotating arm that carries an X-ray source and a moving film mechanism (holding a film) placed at opposite ends). The patient’s skull is between the x-ray generator and the film. The x-ray source emits parallel rays. Also the height of this beam covers the lower jaw and regions of the upper jaw. Arm movement can be described as the rotation around an instantaneous center which changes to a dedicated path.
Manufacturers offer different solutions for moving the arm, trying to maintain a constant distance between the teeth, film and generator. These mobile solutions also try to show the arc of teeth as perpendicular as possible. It is impossible to choose the perfect movement because the anatomy varies a lot from person to person. Finally, a compromise is chosen by each manufacturer and results in enlargement factors that vary greatly for the film (15% -30%). The location of the patient is crucial for both sharpness and distortion.
is used by healthcare professionals to provide information on:
Diagnosis of wisdom tooth and treatment planning. The most common use is to determine the condition of wisdom teeth and jaw injuries.
Loss of bone around the tooth and injury of the bone around the height of the root of the tooth.
Find the source of dental pain, and diagnose all of the teeth in the mouth.
Evaluation of placement of dental implants.
Orthodontic evaluation. Before and after his work.
Carcinoma and its relationship to the jaws
TMJ and joint fusion.
Diagnosis of osteosarcoma, glioblastoma, renal bone malnutrition that affects jaws and hypophosphatemia.
Diagnosis and pre-operative and postoperative evaluation of oral and maxillary trauma, for example dental alveolar fractures and lower jaw fractures.
Salivary stones (Sialolithiasis).
Other diagnostic and therapeutic applications