Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A group of degenerative diseases that are characterized by a motor neuron injury (Motorneuron) in the brain, in the spinal cord and in the tracts responsible for crossing the nerve stimulation between them. The most serious and widespread motor neuron disease is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – ALS, which is also known as Lou Gehrig disease, after the well-known American baseball player Who was afflicted with this disease.
Amyotrophic sclerosis affects the motor nerve cells in the majority of the muscles in the body, through which the brain (nerves) monitors and controls its work (muscles).
the nerve cells are damaged and as a result do not stop the muscle from running. Inactivation and non-innervation of muscles lead to weakness, and even complete paralysis. With continued atrophic lateral sclerosis and the passage of time, the muscles responsible for operating the limbs, for swallowing, for speech and for breathing, are gradually damaged in an indefinite and inconsistent order. However, Amyotrophic sclerosis does not affect the five senses, nor mental performance or the internal muscles (heart, urinary bladder, digestive system, etc.).
The prevalence of Amyotrophic sclerosis ranges between 1 – 6 cases out of every 100,000 people each year, while Amyotrophic sclerosis in 5% – 10% of cases is genetically predominant.
The common age group for atrophic lateral sclerosis is between 40 and 70 years old (55 years old, on average), while there are cases of atrophic lateral sclerosis at an older age than these. But it is very rare for the emergence of atrophic lateral sclerosis under the age of 40, although it is not entirely impossible.
Signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are often easy at first and not specific, and for this reason, there is often a delay in the diagnosis of atrophic lateral sclerosis. The primary complaints are those resulting from muscle weakness. The patient complains of difficulty writing, lifting, climbing and walking. Muscle cramp, change in sound and speech, difficulty swallowing, and even drooping of the head may appear in the initial stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, due to weakness in the neck muscles.
The emergence and development of Amyotrophic sclerosis varies from patient to patient. In general, the typical development is the appearance of advanced weakness in the muscles of the limbs and in the muscles responsible for swallowing, chewing and speaking, even weakness in the breathing muscles, which requires the patient to be connected to the ventilator. The average period of time for a patient to survive ranges from 3 to 5 years. 20% of patients live more than 5 years and about 10% of them live more than 10 years.
The most important diagnostic examination is EMG – Electromyography.
That shows the dysfunction of the motor neuron while the Sensory nerves operate normally and intact.